The brand name of Sporanox is itraconazole which is an azole antifungal substance.
Itraconazole is a 1:1:1: racemic mixture of two enantiomeric pairs, each having 3 chiral centers. The chemical formula of itraconazole is C35H38Cl2N8O4. The molar mass of this compound is 705.64 g/mol. It is very less soluble in alcohols, insoluble in water and soluble in dichloromethane. Sporanox capsules consist of 100 mg itraconazole having a coating of sugar sphere (made of maize starch, purified ware and sucrose).
Sporanox capsules are used for the treatment of the below mentioned fungal infections in non-immunocompromised and immunocompromised patients:
- Pulmonary and extrapulmonary blastomycosis.
- Histoplasmosis which includes non-meningeal histoplasmosis and chronic cavitary pulmonary disease.
- Pulmonary & extrapulmonary aspergillosis in patients who are sensitive to amphotericin B treatment.
Sporanox capsules are also used to treat the non-immunocompromised patients for the following fungal infections:
- Onychomycosis of the fingernail because of tinea unguium (dermatophytes).
- Toenail onychomycosis with/without the involvement of fingernail caused due to dermatophytes.
The dosage of Sporanox (itraconazole) can vary depending on the specific fungal infection being treated. Here are some general guidelines:
For the treatment of toenail or fingernail fungal infections (onychomycosis):
- The usual dosage is 200 mg (two 100 mg capsules) of Sporanox twice daily for 12 consecutive weeks.
- Swallow the capsules whole with a full glass of water, preferably with a meal.
- It is important to complete the full course of treatment to achieve optimal results.
For other fungal infections:
- The dosage and duration of Sporanox treatment will depend on the type and severity of the infection, as well as other factors such as your overall health.
- Your healthcare professional will determine the appropriate dosage and duration for your specific condition.
It is essential to follow the instructions provided by your healthcare professional or the product packaging regarding the dosage and duration of Sporanox treatment. Do not adjust the dosage or stop taking the medication without consulting your doctor. If you have any questions or concerns about the dosage, consult with your healthcare professional or pharmacist for further guidance.
How to Use
Sporanox capsules must be taken with a full meal to obtain maximal absorption. The capsules have to be swallowed as a whole. The recommended dose for the treatments of histoplasmosis and blastomycosis is 200 mg (2 capsules) daily. To treat aspergillosis, a daily dose of 200-400 mg has to be taken. For the treatment of onychomycosis, the recommended dosage is 200 mg once in a day for 12 consecutive weeks.
Sporanox has been related to cause serious hepatotoxicity comprising of liver death and failure in rare cases. Treatment should be discontinued if the clinical symptoms related to liver disease are developed. You should reassess the benefits and risks of Sporanox capsules before use. Some serious side-effects are as follows:
- Abdominal Pain
- Decreased libido
- Abnormal hepatic function
- Impotence in males
- Gastrointestinal problems
Some adverse reactions unusually reported include gastritis, constipation, insomnia, depression, adrenal insufficiency, menstrual disorder, tinnitus, breast pain in mail and gynecomastia.
Sporanox should not be giver the treatment of onychomycosis in patients having ventricular dysfunction like congestive heart failure (CHF). Coadministrations of Substrates of CYP3A4 are contraindicated with the use of Sporanox. Increase of plasma concentrations for the following medications: dofetilide, methadone, disopyramide, quinidine, dronedarone, ergot alkaloids, lurasidone etc. For patients having hypersenstitivity to itraconazole and other azole antifungals, the use of Sporanox is contraindicated.
Sporanox and Pregnancy
It is not clearly known whether the drug causes any danger to the unborn baby or not. Therefore itraconazole should be used for the treatment of the fungal infections in pregnant women only when the advantages overpower the potential risks. For treating onychomycosis in pregnant women, Sporanox should not be administered. Itraconazole can pass into the breast milk, pregnant women should not use Sporanox tablets.
Some frequently asked questions about Itraconazole
What is itraconazole?
Itraconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections caused by different types of fungi. It belongs to the class of drugs known as triazole antifungals.
What conditions can itraconazole treat?
Itraconazole is commonly used to treat fungal infections of the nails (onychomycosis), fungal infections of the skin (such as ringworm and jock itch), and systemic fungal infections (such as histoplasmosis and aspergillosis).
How does itraconazole work?
Itraconazole works by inhibiting the growth of fungi. It interferes with the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of the fungal cell membrane. This disruption weakens and eventually kills the fungi, leading to the elimination of the infection.
Is itraconazole safe to use?
Itraconazole is generally safe when used as directed. However, like any medication, it may have some side effects. Common side effects can include gastrointestinal upset, headache, dizziness, or rash. Serious side effects are rare but can occur. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and usage instructions and consult a healthcare professional if you experience any concerning symptoms.
Can itraconazole be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding?
It is advisable to consult a healthcare professional before using itraconazole during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. They can assess the potential risks and benefits and provide guidance based on your specific situation.
How should itraconazole be taken?
The dosage and duration of itraconazole treatment may vary depending on the specific fungal infection being treated. It is usually taken orally with a full glass of water and preferably with a meal or acidic beverage to enhance absorption. Follow the instructions provided by your healthcare professional or the product packaging for the specific dosage and duration.
Can itraconazole interact with other medications?
Itraconazole may interact with certain medications, including certain antibiotics, antifungals, and medications metabolized by liver enzymes. Inform your healthcare professional about all the medications, supplements, or herbal products you are taking to avoid any potential interactions.
Can itraconazole be used for children?
The use of itraconazole in children should be determined by a healthcare professional. They can assess the child's specific condition and provide appropriate guidance on dosage and usage.
What should I do if my symptoms do not improve or worsen?
If your symptoms do not improve or worsen despite using itraconazole as directed, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and guidance. They can assess your condition and recommend alternative treatment options if necessary.
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